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The CCSBT has agreed to a variety of binding and non-binding measures related to mitigation of bycatches.
Binding measures agreed by the CCSBT comprise:
- Mandatory use of Tori poles is required by all Members in all longline SBT fisheries below 30o south; and
- Resolution to Align CCSBT’s Ecologically Related Species measures with those of other tuna RFMOs (Adopted October 2018).
In accordance with the Resolution to Align CCSBT’s Ecologically Related Species measures with those of other tuna RFMOs, the following measures of IOTC, WCPFC, or ICCAT are binding on Members of the CCSBT when fishing within the relevant area of competence:
Area of Competence of the IOTC
- Resolution 12/04 On the conservation of marine turtles;
- Resolution 12/06 On reducing the incidental bycatch of seabirds in longline fisheries;
- Resolution 12/09 On the Conservation of Thresher Sharks (Family Alopiidae) caught in Association with Fisheries in the IOTC area of competence;
- Resolution 13/04 On the conservation of cetaceans;
- Resolution 13/05 On the conservation of whale sharks (Rhincodon typus);
- Resolution 13/06 On a scientific and management framework on the conservation of shark species caught in association with IOTC managed fisheries; and
- Resolution 17/05 on the conservation of sharks caught in association with fisheries managed by IOTC.
Convention Area of the WCPFC
- Resolution 2008/03 on the Conservation and Management of Sea Turtles;
- Resolution 2010/07 - Conservation and Management Measure for Sharks;
- Resolution 2011/04 - Conservation and Management Measure for Oceanic Whitetip Shark;
- Resolution 2012/04 - Conservation and Management Measure on the protection of whale sharks from purse seine operations;
- Resolution 2013/08 - Conservation and Management Measure for Silky Sharks;
- Resolution 2014/05 - Conservation and Management Measures for Sharks; and
- Resolution 2017/06 - Conservation and Management Measure to Mitigate the Impact of Fishing for Highly Migratory Fish Stocks on Seabirds.
Convention Area of the ICCAT
- Resolution 95-02 on cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) with regard to study on the status of stocks and by-catches of shark species;
- Resolution 03-10 on the shark fishery;
- Recommendation 04-10 concerning the conservation of sharks caught in association with fisheries managed by ICCAT;
- Resolution 05-08 on circle hooks;
- Supplemental Recommendation 07-06 Concerning Sharks;
- Recommendation 07-07 on Reducing Incidental Bycatch of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries;
- Recommendation 09-07 on the Conservation of Thresher Sharks Caught in Association with Fisheries in the ICCAT Convention Area;
- Recommendation 10-06 on Atlantic Shortfin Mako Sharks Caught in Association with ICCAT Fisheries;
- Recommendation 10-07 on the Conservation of Oceanic Whitetip Shark Caught in Association with fisheries in the ICCAT Convention Area;
- Recommendation 10-08 on Hammerhead Sharks (family Sphyrnidae) caught in Association with Fisheries Managed by ICCAT;
- Recommendation 10-09 on the By-catch of Sea Turtles in ICCAT Fisheries (note that this recommendation has been amended by recommendation 13-11);
- Recommendation 11-08 on the Conservation of Silky Sharks Caught in Associated with ICCAT Fisheries;
- Supplemental Recommendation 11-09 on Reducing Incidental By-Catch of Seabirds in ICCAT Longline Fisheries;
- Recommendation 11-10 on Information Collection and Harmonization of Data on By-catch and Discards in ICCAT Fisheries;
- Recommendation 12-05 on Compliance with Existing Measures on Shark Conservation and Management;
- Recommendation 13-10 on Biological Sampling of Prohibited Shark Species by Scientific Observers;
- Recommendation 13-11 Amending Recommendation 10-09 on the By-Catch of Sea Turtles in ICCAT Fisheries;
- Recommendation 14-06 on Shortfin Mako Caught in Association with ICCAT Fisheries;
- Recommendation 15-06 on Porbeagle Caught in Association with ICCAT Fisheries;
- Recommendation 16-12 on Management Measures for the Conservation of Atlantic Blue Shark Caught in Association with ICCAT fisheries; and
- Recommendation 16-13 on Improvement of Compliance Review of Conservation and Management Measures regarding Sharks Caught in Association with ICCAT Fisheries.
Non-Binding measures agreed by the CCSBT include:
- Members shall:
- Exchange information concerning new or refined techniques to reduce incidental catch of seabirds and cooperate in developing and assessing the effectiveness of such techniques, including those with the objective of preventing the approach of seabirds to fishing vessels or restraining the feeding activities of seabirds. In introducing a technique, a Member will consider its effectiveness in reducing the incidental catch of ecologically related species, and the costs and benefits, including possible impacts on harvesting of tuna.
- Continue to assess the effectiveness of the measures described in the points above.
- Promote, among the fishers concerned, understanding about the incidental capture of seabirds and measures which can be implemented to reduce seabird capture in longline operations.
- Members should:
- Promote the use of appropriately designed and deployed tori lines in SBT longline fishing operations
- Take the following measures, as appropriate, in longline fisheries while taking southern bluefin tuna:
- avoid the dumping of offal as far as possible while longlines are being set or hauled; and
- use thawed baits.
- Make every effort to ensure that birds captured alive during longlining are released alive and that wherever possible hooks are removed without jeopardising the life of the bird concerned.
- In accordance with CCSBT’s Recommendation to Mitigate the Impact on Ecologically Related Species of Fishing for Southern Bluefin Tuna, Members will:
- To the extent possible, implement the International Plan of Action for Reducing Incidental Catches of Seabirds in Longline Fisheries (IPOA-Seabirds), the International Plan of Action for the Conservation and Management of Sharks (IPOA-Sharks), and the FAO Guidelines to reduce sea turtle mortality in fishing operations (FAO-Sea turtles), if they have not already done so.
- Comply with all current binding and recommendatory measures aimed at the protection of ecologically related species, including seabirds, sea turtles and sharks, from fishing, which are adopted from time to time:
- by the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC), when fishing in its Convention area;
- by the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC), when fishing in its Convention area; and
- by the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT), when fishing in its Convention area.
Education to Minimise ByCatch
Education pamphlets on seabirds and sharks have been produced and distributed to SBT fishers since 2003. Technical (mainly taxonomical) aspects of these pamphlets were updated in 2011-13. These are;
- English versions (Seabird (Zip 58.6MB), Shark (Zip 38.4MB))
- Japanese versions (Zip 97.0MB)
- Korean versions (Zip 95.6MB)
- Mandarin versions (Zip 80.9MB)
- Indonesian versions (Zip 95.7MB)
CCSBT does not have its own education pamphlets on sea turtles, but the following useful material is available:
- WCPFC Guidelines for the Handling of Sea Turtles; and
- FAO: Guidelines to Reduce Sea Turtle Mortality in Fishing Operations: Note: While this guide is far too detailed to be useful in the field, relevant details could be useful to CCSBT fishers, such as information on procedures for turtle recovery after a capture and types of tools that can be used for handling/de-hooking turtles (pp. 62-69).